Imirire Ubuzima

Kugaburira umwana kuva ku mezi 6 kugeza ku myaka 3

Kugaburira umwana si kimwe no kugaburira umuntu mukuru dore ko umwana aba akeneye gukura haba mu bwenge, mu gihagararo, no mu mbaraga. Niyo mpamvu mu kumugaburira hari amafunguro uba usabwa kwitaho kurenza ayandi bijyanye n’icyo wifuza kumwongerera ndetse n’ikigero cy’ubukure agezemo.
Nkuko ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye ryita ku buzima (OMS/WHO) ribisaba ababyeyi, umwana utarageza amezi atandatu avutse nta kindi aba akwiye guhabwa uretse kumwonsa gusa. Nyamara kubera impamvu zinyuranye, nk’akazi, kubura amashereka, n’izindi mpamvu, umwana utarageza ku mezi atandatu ashobora guhabwa ibindi bisimbura amashereka bikunze kwitwa amata (mu moko n’amazina anyuranye).
 
Uretse rero aha, nyuma y’amezi atandatu umwana atangira guhabwa ifashabere riba rigizwe n’amafunguro anyuranye. Aya mafunguro aba agizwe n’imyunyungugu, vitamin, poroteyine n’izindi ntungamubiri zinyuranye nk’ibinure. Mu gihe rero ugaburira umwana uba ukwiye kumenya ifunguro umuhaye ibiririmo ndetse ukanamenya niba mu kigero agezemo ugomba kumuha byinshi cyangwa bicye.
Reka turebere hamwe intungamubiri ziba zikwiye kuboneka mu ifunguro ry’umwana (hano turavuga umwana utarageza imyaka 3) turebe aho ziboneka, igipimo kuri buri kigero cy’ubukure ndetse turanavuga ku buryo ifunguro rigomba kuba rimeze.

1. Poroteyine

Abana bakenera poroteyine cyane ugereranyije n’abantu bakuru. Izi poroteyine twavuga ko ari amatafari yubaka umubiri wacu kandi nkuko bivugwa umwana apfa mu iterura. Izi poroteyine nizo zikora uturemangingo fatizo ndetse n’imisemburo kandi zinakora nka enzymes (zifasha mu mikorere y’umubiri).
Poroteyine ahanini zikomoka ku biva ku matungo ariko siho gusa ziva kuko wanazisanga kuri soya, ibishyimbo. Ziboneka kandi mu mata n’ibiyakomokaho, inyama, amagi ndetse n’inkoko. Agakombe k’amata y’inka kabamo garama 8 za poroteyine naho igi rimwe wasangamo garama 6 za poroteyine.

2. Ibinyasukari

 
Mu gihe poroteyine ari ibyubaka umubiri, ibinyasukari byo ni ibitera imbaraga. Umwana ibyo akora byose akoresha imbaraga nko kwiyubura, gukambakamba, kugenda ndetse anakoresha ubwonko cyane dore ko aba ashaka kumenya byinshi. Amasukari menshi aboneka ari nka amidon mu byo umwana arya kandi amafunguro usangamo amasukari y’umwimerere harimo imbuto, ibinyampeke (amasaka, ibigori, uburo, umuceri, ingano), imboga ndetse n’utubuto duhekenywa nka sesame.
 

3. Ibinyamavuta

Ibinyamavuta, ushatse wanabyita ibinure. Ibi bikenerwa by’umwihariko mu mikurire n’imikorere y’ubwonko. Niyo mpamvu byakabaye byiza ko hagati ya 30% na 40% ya calorie (igipimo cy’ingufu) umwana akeneye biba bikwiye guturuka mu binyamavuta. Nubwo ku bantu bakuru basabwa kugabanya ibinyamavuta mu mafunguro ariko ku mwana birakenewe. Amavuta meza ni amwe y’umwimerere ukaba uyasanga muri avoka, amata, ubunyobwa, amavuta ya elayo n’amavuta ya coconut.

4. Ubutare

Ubutare (fer/iron) niwo munyungugu wa mbere abana batangiye gufata ifashabere baba bakeneye. Burya ubutare umwana akeneye burenze kure ubwo umuntu mukuru akeneye. Ubutare nibwo butwara umwuka wa oxygen buwukwiza mu mubiri kandi ibi bifasha mu mikurire y’ubwonko nokugira ingufu. Umwana utarageza ku mezi 6 ubutare abukura mu mashereka ndetse umubiri we uba ukinakoresha ubwo yavukanye. Hejuru y’aya mezi rero butangira kugabanyuka ku buryo utabyitayeho yagira ikibazo cy’amaraso macye ibi bikaba byagira ingaruka zikomeye ku mikurire ye haba mu gihagararo n’imitekerereze.
Ikizakubwira ko ubutare bwabaye bucye harimo kugira uruhu rwijimye, kuba inabute, kudakura no kutagira ubushake bwo kurya. Amafunguro meza wasangamo ubutare harimo ibinyampeke, ibishyimbo, inyama cyane cyane inkoko, umwijima, amagi, soya n’ibizikomokaho, na epinari.

5. Zinc

Uyu munyungugu nubwo udakenerwa ari mwinshi cyane ariko ni ingenzi kuko ufasha ibikomere gukira vuba kandi ugatuma ubudahangarwa bukomera. Zinc iboneka cyane mubyo kurya byo mu Nyanja, inyama n’ibishyimbo

6. Calcium

Uyu munyungugu niwo ufasha amagufa n’amenyo gukomera no kugira ireme. Amafunguro akungahaye kuri calcium ni imboga nka epinari, amashu mu moko yose, ibishyimbo, isombe na almond (amande). tuwusanga kandi ku mata n’ibiyakomokaho, inyama muri rusange.

7. Vitamin A

Iyi ni vitamin y’ingenzi mu gufasha amaso kureba neza ndetse nayo ifasha mu kongerera ingufu ubudahangarwa. Ikomoka mu biva ku matungo, izwi nka retinol yo iba itunganyije nta cyo umubiri uyihinduraho ikaba iboneka mu nyama y’umwijima, amafi, amata n’ibiyakomokaho. Naho iva mu bimera izwi nka carotenoid yo ihinduka vitamin A igeze mu mubiri ikaba iboneka mu mbuto zisa icyatsi na orange (pome, amacunga …) no mu mboga nka karoti, epinari, amashu

8. Vitamin C

Iyi vitamin ikora byinshi harimo gusohora imyanda mu mubiri, gutuma umubiri ukoresha ubutare winjije, kongerera ingufu ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri, no gukorwa kw’uturemangingo duhuza ibice by’umubiri n’utugufagufa. Iboneka cyane mu mbuto, poivron, inkeri n’imboga. Iyi vitamin niyo ituma umubiri ubasha guhangana n’indwara ziterwa na mikorobi nka grippe, umusonga, n’izindi ndwara zinyuranye.

9. Vitamin D

Iyi vitamin ntisigana na calcium mu gutuma amagufa akomera. Inafasha mu kurinda indwara ziterwa n’imikorere mibi y’ubwirinzi, na kanseri zinyuranye. Gusa iyi vitamin iboneka mu mafunguro macye, ariko inkuru ishimishije ni uko umubiri wacu ubasha kuyikorera binyuze mu mirasire y’izuba. Kotesha umwana akazuba k’agasusuruko cyangwa ka kiberinka iminota hagati ya 10 na 15 birahagije ku munsi. Amwe mu mafunguro ibonekamo ni umuhondo w’igi, amafi nka tuna, mackerel na salmon ndetse no muri fromage. Icyakora habaho n’amafunguro ibonekamo yongewemo (fortified food).

10. Vitamin B9

Iyi vitamini kandi izwi ku izina rya folate cyangwa folic acid. Ikenerwa kuva umwana asamwe kuko ifasha mu ikorwa ry’urutirigongo naho iyo amaze kuvuka iba ingenzi mu mikorere y’ubwonko cyane cyane kumufasha kwibuka. Iyi vitamin iboneka ahantu hanyuranye nko muri avoka, imboga zifite icyatsi cyijimye, ibishyimbo n’urunyogwe.

11. Ibinure bya omega-3

Ibi binure bibamo amoko abiri y’ingenzi ariyo DHA na EPA. Ibi binure ni ingenzi mu gukura k’ubwonko ku bana. Si ibyo gusa kuko binafasha mu kurwanya kubyimbirwa kandi bikanarinda indwara z’umutima. Kuko ibi binure umubiri wacu utabyikorera tubibona binyuze mu byo dufungura. Ibi binure tubisanga cyane mu mafi nka tuna, sardine na salmon. Mu bimera tubisanga mu bifenesi, utubuto twa flax, chia, ibihwagari, soya n’amavuta ya canola.
Hano hasi hari imbonerahamwe yerekana ibipimo fatizo kuri buri kigero cy’imyaka. Ikaba irimo ibice bibiri. Icyambere ni igihe umwana atangiye gufata ifashabere kugeza yujuje umwaka ikindi ni igihe yujuje umwaka kugeza agize imyaka itatu.
INTUNGAMUBIRI
MBERE Y’UMWAKA
HAGATI YA 1 NA 3
Poroteyine
11g
13g
Ibinyasukari
95g
130g
Ibinure
30-40% za calories
30-40% za calories
Ubutare
11 mg
7 mg
Zinc
3 mg
3 mg
Calcium
700 mg
700 mg
Vitamin A
500 ug
300 ug
Vitamin C
50 mg
15 mg
Vitamin D
400 IU
400 IU
Vitamin B9
80ug
150ug
Omega-3
500 mg
700 mg

Icyitonderwa

  • Uretse igihe umwana yujuje umwaka, ariko umwana utaruzuza umwaka hari amafunguro aba ataremererwa guhabwa wanayamuha ukirinda kuyavanga n’andi kugirango ugenzure niba we nta bwivumbure ayagiraho. Ayo ni amafunguro azwiho gutera ubwivumbure cyane cyane umuhondo w’igi, ubunyobwa, amata y’inka n’amafi.
  • Ku mwana uri hagati y’amezi 6 na 8 amafunguro ye usabwa kuyasya akanoga ndetse akaba ameze nk’igikoma. Mu yo kwibandaho harimo ibinyampeke, inyama z’inkoko, tofu, karoti, urunyogwe, epinari, ibishyimbo, imbuto ukirinda izirimo aside nk’amacunga n’indimu.
  • Hejuru y’amezi 8 kugeza ku icumi wongeramo umuhondo w’igi, amafi n’ibikomoka mu nyanja nk’injanga, poivron, ipapayi, icunga, watermelon, yawurute na foromaje; nawe ibye urabisya ariko ntibibe igikoma cyane.
  • Arengeje amezi icumi nta funguro aba atemerewe uretse ya yandi azwiho gutera ubwivumbure ndetse n’ubuki kuko bushobora kumutera indwara ya botulism. Uba kandi uretse kumuha amafunguro akomeye cyane nk’imyumbati, umutsima w’amasaka cyangwa ibigori. Amata ye urayafungura kugeza yujuje umwaka aho ashobora kuyanywa adafunguye. Si ngombwa kubisya cyane kuko aba atangiye kumenyera kwitamika kandi n’amenyo aba ari kumera agomba kumenyera guhekenya.

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